METAL/SPIRAL WOUND GASKETS

Engineering Data/FAQs



Torque Tables

These tables were developed to be used with Garlock spiral wound gaskets. They are to be used only as a general guide. They should not be considered to contain absolute values due to the large number of uncontrollable variables involved with bolted joints. If there is doubt as to the proper torque value to use, we suggest that the maximum value be used.

All bolt torque values are based upon the use of new nuts (ASTM A194, GR 2H) and new bolts (ASTM A193, GR B7) of proper design, acceptable quality and approved materials of construction as well as metallurgy. It is also required that two hardened steel washers be used under the head of each nut and that a non-metallic based lubricant (i.e. oil and graphite) be used on the nuts, bolts and washers.

The flanges are assumed to be in good condition and in compliance with ASME B16.5 specifications. Special attention should be given to seating surface finish and flatness. See "Recommended Flange Finish".

Only torque wrenches that have been calibrated should be used. The proper bolt tightening pattern must be followed with the desired ultimate torque value arrived at in a minimum of three equal increments. All bolts in the flange should then be checked in consecutive order in a counterclockwise direction. See "Gasket Installation".

The contact dimensions listed are taken from the ID and OD of the windings, which are different from the ASME ring gasket dimensions.

No provisions have been made in these tables to account for vibration effects on the bolts. These tables are are based on ambient conditions, without compensation for elevated temperatures. If conditions different from these exist, we suggest that further analysis be performed to determine the appropriate torque values.



Torque Tables
For Spiral Wound Gaskets, ASME B16.5

Class 150

  Nom. Pipe Size (inches)
  0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
0.75 1 1.25 1.88 2.13 2.75 3.25 4 5 6.13 7.19 9.19 11.31 13.38 14.63 16.63 18.69 20.69 24.75
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
1.25 1.56 1.88 2.38 2.75 3.38 3.88 4.75 5.88 7 8.25 10.38 12.5 14.75 16 18.25 20.75 22.75 27
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
0.79 1.13 1.53 1.67 2.39 3.01 3.50 5.15 7.47 9.02 12.88 18.25 22.21 30.37 33.07 44.51 63.88 70.36 91.45
No. of
Bolts
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.88 0.88 1 1 1.13 1.13 1.25
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
60 60 60 60 60 120 120 120 120 200 200 200 320 320 490 490 710 710 1000
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K
(ft lb)
7560 7560 7560 7560 7560 12120 12120 12120 12120 18120 18120 18120 25140 25140 33060 33060 43680 43680 55740
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available
(psi)
38503 26712 19713 18119 12637 16125 13861 9406 12974 16071 11253 7945 13584 9933 11995 11884 10940 12415 12190
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
(psi)
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 9406 10000 10000 10000 7945 10000 9933 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Minimum
Torque per
Bolt (ft lb)
16 22 30 33 47 74 87 120 92 124 178 200 236 320 408 412 649 572 820
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
Avail. (psi)
30000 26712 19713 18119 12637 16125 13861 9406 12974 16071 11253 7945 13584 9933 11995 11884 10940 12415 12190
Prefer'd
Torque
(ft lb)
47 60 60 60 60 120 120 120 120 200 200 200 320 320 490 490 710 710 1000

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.



Class 300

  Nom. Pipe Size (inches)
  0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
0.75 1 1.25 1.88 2.13 2.75 3.25 4 5 6.13 7.19 9.19 11.31 13.38 14.63 16.63 18.69 20.69 24.75
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
1.25 1.56 1.88 2.38 2.75 3.38 3.88 4.75 5.88 7 8.25 10.38 12.5 14.75 16 18.25 20.75 22.75 27
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
0.79 1.13 1.55 1.67 2.38 3.03 3.53 5.15 7.52 8.97 12.85 18.28 22.24 30.25 32.94 44.36 63.78 70.25 91.40
No. of
Bolts
4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 16 20 20 24 24 24
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
0.5 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.75 0.63 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.88 1 1.13 1.13 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.5
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
60 120 120 120 200 120 200 200 200 200 200 320 490 710 710 1000 1000 1000 1600
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K
(ft lb)
7560 12120 12120 12120 18120 12120 18120 18120 18120 18120 18120 25140 33060 43680 43680 55740 55740 55740 84300
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available
(psi)
38522 43079 31319 28994 30517 31983 41110 28139 19287 16166 16925 16502 23782 23102 26520 25133 20975 19044 22135
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
(psi)
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Minimum
Torque per
Bolt (ft lb)
16 28 38 41 66 38 49 71 104 124 118 194 206 307 268 398 477 525 723
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
Avail. (psi)
30000 30000 30000 28994 30000 30000 30000 28139 19287 16166 16925 16502 23782 23102 26520 25133 20975 19044 22135
Prefer'd
Torque
(ft lb)
47 84 115 120 197 113 146 200 200 200 200 320 490 710 710 1000 1000 1000 1600

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.



Class 400

  Nom. Pipe Size (inches)
  4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
4.75 5.81 6.88 8.88 10.81 12.88 14.25 16.25 18.5 20.5 24.75
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
5.88 7 8.25 10.38 12.5 14.75 16 18.25 20.75 22.75 27
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
9.43 11.97 16.27 22.68 30.92 40.56 41.56 54.17 69.33 76.39 91.40
No. of
Bolts
8 8 12 12 16 16 20 20 24 24 24
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
0.88 0.88 0.88 1 1.13 1.25 1.25 1.38 1.38 1.5 1.75
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
320 320 320 490 710 1000 1000 1360 1360 1600 3000
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K
(ft lb)
25140 25140 25140 33060 43680 55740 55740 69300 69300 84300 118800
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available
(psi)
21329 16807 18540 17493 22600 21988 26826 25588 23991 26485 31194
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
(psi)
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Minimum
Torque per
Bolt (ft lb)
150 190 173 280 314 455 373 531 567 604 962
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
Avail. (psi)
21329 16807 18540 17493 22600 21988 26826 25588 23991 26485 3000
Prefer'd
Torque
(ft lb)
320 320 320 490 710 1000 1000 1360 1360 1600 2885

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.



Class 600

  Nom. Pipe Size (inches)
  0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
0.75 1 1.25 1.88 2.13 2.75 3.25 4 4.75 5.81 6.88 8.88 10.81 12.88 14.25 16.25 18.5 20.5 24.75
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
1.25 1.56 1.88 2.38 2.75 3.38 3.88 4.75 5.88 7 8.25 10.38 12.5 14.75 16 18.25 20.75 22.75 27
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
0.79 1.13 1.55 1.67 2.38 3.03 3.53 5.15 9.43 11.97 16.27 22.68 30.92 40.56 41.56 54.17 69.33 76.39 91.40
No. of
Bolts
4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 24 24
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
0.5 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.75 0.63 0.75 0.75 0.88 1 1 1.13 1.25 1.25 1.38 1.5 1.63 1.63 1.88
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
60 120 120 120 200 120 200 200 320 490 490 710 1000 1000 1360 1600 2200 2200 4000
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K
(ft lb)
7560 12120 12120 12120 18120 12120 18120 18120 25140 33060 33060 43680 55740 55740 69300 84300 100800 100800 138240
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available
(psi)
38522 43079 31319 28994 30517 31983 41110 28139 21329 22102 24381 23112 28840 27486 33353 31127 29080 31669 36298
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
(psi)
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Minimum
Torque per
Bolt (ft lb)
16 28 38 41 66 38 49 71 150 222 201 307 347 364 408 514 757 695 1102
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
Avail. (psi)
30000 30000 30000 28994 30000 30000 30000 28139 21329 22102 24381 23112 28840 27486 30000 30000 29080 30000 30000
Prefer'd
Torque
(ft lb)
47 84 115 120 197 113 146 200 320 490 490 710 1000 1000 1223 1542 2200 2084 3306

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.



Class 900

  Nom. Pipe Size (inches)
  3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
3.75 4.75 5.81 6.88 8.75 10.88 12.75 14 16.25 18.25 20.5 24.75
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
4.75 5.88 7 8.25 10.13 12.25 14.5 15.75 18 20.5 22.5 26.75
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
6.67 9.43 11.97 16.27 20.45 24.88 37.43 40.87 47.05 68.44 67.51 80.86
No. of
Bolts
8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 20 20
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
0.88 1.13 1.25 1.13 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.5 1.63 1.88 2 2.5
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
320 710 1000 710 1360 1360 1360 1600 2200 4000 4400 8800
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K
(ft lb)
25140 43680 55740 43680 69300 69300 69300 84300 100800 138240 159120 257520
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available
(psi)
30142 37059 37264 32213 40660 44575 37024 41254 42847 40396 47140 63699
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
(psi)
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Minimum
Torque per
Bolt (ft lb)
106 192 268 220 334 305 367 388 513 990 933 1381
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
Avail. (psi)
30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000
Prefer'd
Torque
(ft lb)
318 575 805 661 1003 915 1102 1164 1540 2971 2800 4144

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.



Class 1500

  Nom. Pipe Size (inches)
  0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24
Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
0.75 1 1.25 1.56 1.88 2.31 2.75 3.63 4.63 5.63 6.75 8.5 10.5 12.75 14.25 16 18.25 20.25 24.25
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
1.25 1.56 1.88 2.38 2.75 3.38 3.88 4.75 5.88 7 8.25 10.13 12.25 14.5 15.75 18 20.5 22.5 26.75
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
0.79 1.13 1.55 2.54 3.16 4.78 5.88 7.37 10.31 13.58 17.66 23.84 31.25 37.43 35.55 53.38 68.44 75.51 100.09
No. of
Bolts
4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 16 16
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
0.75 0.75 0.88 0.88 1 0.88 1 1.13 1.25 1.5 1.38 1.63 1.88 2 2.25 2.5 2.75 3 3.5
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
200 200 320 320 490 320 490 710 1000 1600 1360 2200 4000 4400 6360 8800 11840 15440 26000
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K
(ft lb)
18120 18120 25140 25140 33060 25140 33060 43680 55740 84300 69300 100800 138240 159120 205380 257520 315540 379440 525000
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available
(psi)
92331 64405 64964 39650 41821 42081 44971 47429 43239 49651 47083 50742 53079 68010 93024 77188 73765 80403 83927
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
(psi)
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Minimum
Torque per
Bolt (ft lb)
22 31 49 81 117 76 109 150 231 322 289 434 754 647 684 1140 1605 1920 3098
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
Avail. (psi)
30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000
Prefer'd
Torque
(ft lb)
65 93 148 242 351 228 327 449 694 967 867 1301 2261 1941 2051 3420 4815 5761 9294

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.



Class 2500

  Nom. Pipe Size (inches)
  0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12
Gsk. ID
Contact
(inches)
0.75 1 1.25 1.56 1.88 2.31 2.75 3.63 4.63 5.63 6.75 8.5 10.63 12.5
Gsk. OD
Contact
(inches)
1.25 1.56 1.88 2.38 2.75 3.38 3.88 4.75 5.88 7 8.25 10.13 12.25 14.5
Gsk. Area
Contact
(Sq. in.)
0.79 1.13 1.55 2.54 3.16 4.78 5.88 7.37 10.31 13.58 17.66 23.84 29.10 42.39
No. of
Bolts
4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12
Size of
Bolts
(inches)
0.75 0.75 0.88 1 1.13 1 1.13 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2 2.5 2.75
Max. Torque
per Bolts
@ 60 ksi
Bolt Stress
(ft lb)
200 200 320 490 710 490 710 1000 1600 3000 4400 4400 8800 11840
Comp. per
Bolt @ 60K
(ft lb)
18120 18120 25140 33060 43680 33060 43680 55740 84300 118800 159120 159120 257520 315540
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Available
(psi)
92331 64405 64964 52141 55255 55338 59417 60524 65394 69970 72071 80101 106207 89325
Min. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
(psi)
10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Minimum
Torque per
Bolt (ft lb)
22 31 49 94 128 89 119 165 245 429 611 549 829 1325
Max. Gsk.
Comp. Recomm.
Avail. (psi)
30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000
Prefer'd
Torque
(ft lb)
65 93 148 282 385 266 358 496 734 1286 1832 1648 2486 3976

Tables are based on the use of bolts with a yield strength of 100,000 psi.




Torque to Stress Bolts

The torque required to produce a certain stress in bolting is dependent on several conditions, including:

The tables below reflect the results of many tests to determine the relation between torque and bolt stress. Values are based on steel bolts that have been well-lubricated with a heavy graphite and oil mixture.

A non-lubricated bolt has an efficiency of about 50% of a well-lubricated bolt. Also, different lubricants produce results that vary from 50% to 100% of the tabulated stress figures.


For Alloy Steel Stud Bolts (Load in pounds on stud bolts when torque load is applied)
  Nominal Diameter of Bolt (inches)
  1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3
Number
of
Threads
(per inch)
20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Diameter
at Root
of Thread
(inches)
0.185 0.240 0.294 0.345 0.400 0.454 0.507 0.620 0.731 0.838 0.963 1.088 1.213 1.338 1.463 1.588 1.713 1.838 2.088 2.338 2.588 2.838
Area
at Root
of Thread
(sq. inch)
0.027 0.045 0.068 0.093 0.126 0.162 0.202 0.302 0.419 0.551 0.728 0.929 1.155 1.405 1.680 1.980 2.304 2.652 3.423 4.292 5.259 6.324
S

T

R

E

S

S
30,000 psi
Torque
(ft lbs)
4 8 12 20 30 45 60 100 160 245 355 500 680 800 1100 1500 2000 2200 3180 4400 5920 7720
30,000 psi
Compres-
sion (lbs)
810 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 21840 27870 34650 42150 50400 59400 69120 79560 102690 128760 157770 189720
45,000 psi
Torque
(ft lbs)
6 12 18 30 45 68 90 150 240 368 533 750 1020 1200 1650 2250 3000 3300 4770 6600 8880 11580
45,000 psi
Compres-
sion (lbs)
1215 2025 3060 4185 5670 7290 9090 13590 18855 24795 32760 41805 51975 63225 75600 89100 103680 119340 154035 193140 236655 264580
60,000 psi
Torque
(ft lbs)
8 16 24 40 60 90 120 200 320 490 710 1000 1360 1600 2200 3000 4000 4400 6360 8800 11840 15440
60,000 psi
Compres-
sion (lbs)
1620 2700 4080 5580 7560 9720 12120 18120 25140 33060 43680 55740 69300 84300 100800 118800 138240 159120 205380 257520 315540 379440


For Machine Bolts and Cold Rolled Steel Stud Bolts (Load in pounds on stud bolts when torque load is applied)
  Nominal Diameter of Bolt (inches)
  1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2
Number
of
Threads
(per inch)
20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5-1/2 5 5 4-1/2
Diameter
at Root
of Thread
(inches)
0.185 0.240 0.294 0.345 0.400 0.454 0.507 0.620 0.731 0.838 0.939 1.064 1.158 1.283 1.389 1.490 1.615 1.711
Area
at Root
of Thread
(sq. inch)
0.027 0.045 0.068 0.093 0.126 0.162 0.202 0.302 0.419 0.551 0.693 0.890 1.054 1.294 1.515 1.744 2.049 2.300
S

T

R

E

S

S
7,500 psi
Torque
(ft lbs)
1 2 3 5 8 12 15 25 40 62 98 137 183 219 300 390 525 563
7,500 psi
Compres-
sion (lbs)
203 338 510 698 945 1215 1515 2265 3143 4133 5190 6675 7905 9705 11363 13080 15368 17250
15,000 psi
Torque
(ft lbs)
2 4 6 10 15 23 30 50 80 123 195 273 365 437 600 775 1050 1125
15,000 psi
Compres-
sion (lbs)
405 675 1020 1395 1890 2340 3030 4530 6285 8265 10380 13350 15810 19410 22725 26160 30735 34500
30,000 psi
Torque
(ft lbs)
4 8 12 20 30 45 60 100 160 245 390 545 730 875 1200 1550 2100 2250
30,000 psi
Compres-
sion (lbs)
810 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 20760 26700 31620 38820 45450 52320 61470 69000

 

WARNING:
Properties/application shown here are typical. Your specific application should not be undertaken without independent study and evaluation for suitability. For specific application recommendations consult Garlock. Failure to select the proper sealing products could result in property damage and/or serious personal injury.

Performance data published here has been developed from field testing, customer field reports and/or in-house testing.

While the utmost care has been used in compiling this information, we assume no responsibility for errors. Specifications subject to change without notice. This edition cancels all previous issues. Subject to change without notice.


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